who ordered the massacre of glencoe

He argued lawlessness was deliberately encouraged by leaders like Glengarry, while ‘the midle sort of Gentrey and Commons....never got anything but hurt’ from it. Written by Jim McLean and published by Duart Music, 1963, "Massacre Of Glencoe", "The Massacre Of Glencoe" or simply "Glencoe" is not the first song to be written about this infamous, shameful and senseless act of what would today be called ethnic cleansing in the Scottish Highlands. The massacre was launched on February 13 1692 after the King ordered Captain Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon to attack his hosts and “put all to the sword under seventy”. Try The order was then passed on to Sir Thomas Livingstone, commander of the forces in Scotland. The Campbell’s have long been vilified for their role in the massacre. The first historical figure connected with Glencoe was Fingal, one of the greatest Celtic heroes and leader of the Feinn, warriors of Gaelic mythology.The glen was his legendary home and his memory is preserved in a number of place names, for … 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' Other poetic references include Letitia Elizabeth Landon's "Glencoe" (1823), T. S. Eliot's "Rannoch, by Glencoe" and "Two Poems from Glencoe" by Douglas Stewart. The Massacre was ordered by Sir John Dalrymple, Secretary of State of Scotland, as punishment for the MacDonald’s chief, MacIain, not swearing the oath of loyalty to the new king, William of Orange, before the deadline of 31st December 1691. Hello, Sign in. [9], In early October, the chiefs asked James for permission to take the Oath unless he could mount an invasion before the deadline, a condition they knew to be impossible. [17] Glengarry was pardoned and his lands returned, while maintaining his reputation at the Jacobite court by being the last to swear and ensuring Cannon and Buchan received safe conduct to France in March 1692. The massacre of the Glencoe MacDonalds by government troops in 1692 took place during a blizzard in the depths of winter. 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' Trente-huit hommes du clan Donald de Glencoe furent tu… Four clans from this area were named as particularly responsible; the Glencoe and Keppoch MacDonalds, the MacGregors and the Camerons. [37], The brutality of the Massacre shocked Scottish society and became a Jacobite symbol of post-1688 oppression; in 1745, Prince Charles ordered Leslie's pamphlet and the 1695 Parliamentary minutes reprinted in the Edinburgh Caledonian Mercury. He was to spare none below the age of seventy. Dalrymple was not a fan of the Jacobite cause, Highland culture, or the MacDonalds themselves. The Massacre of Glencoe. [46] Originally known as the 'Soldier's Stone', [47] in the late 19th century, it was renamed Clach Eanruig, or 'Henry's Stone'; it is currently named the Henderson Stone, after the family reputed to be pipers to MacIain. you are to have a speciall care that the old Fox and his sones doe upon no account escape your hands, you are to secure all the avenues that no man escape. Despite assurances at Fort William that McIain would be protected, word was delivered to Dalrymple at his office in Kensington Palace by Archibald, 10th Earl of Argyll, Chief of Clan Campbell, that MacIain’s certificate was void. Stair persuaded King William that the order was designed to root out a den of thieves in the Valley of Glencoe. It was deemed an outrageous affront to both the rule of law as well as the Highland code of hospitality and caused uproar across the country. 1705", "The dig uncovering Glencoe's dark secrets", "Archaeologists Trace 'Lost Settlements' of 1692 Glencoe Massacre", Report of the Commission given by his majesty, for inquiring into the slaughter of the men of Glenco subscribed at Halyrud-house the 20th day of June, 1693, Macaulay's History of England, chapter XVIII, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Massacre_of_Glencoe&oldid=996399108, Articles containing Scottish Gaelic-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 10:42. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. Signed by Major Robert Duncanson, the orders stated, "You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and put all to the sword under seventy. He is known as the 'Curse of Scotland' for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. The Massacre of Glencoe came against the backdrop of civil war in the British Isles. [39] He sought to exonerate William from every charge made by Leslie, including the Massacre, which he claimed was part of a Campbell–MacDonald clan feud. [7], On 26 August, a Royal Proclamation offered a pardon to anyone taking the Oath prior to 1 January 1692, with severe reprisals for those who did not. This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. To slaughter the MacDonalds themselves potatoes ) Jacobite cause, Highland culture, or the MacDonalds Glencoe! Campbell carried orders for 'free quarter ', an established alternative to taxes. Re sometimes called potato scones, but in the context of late 17th century Scottish society point he! Travelled to Fort William, which at that time was a largely non-cash.. To Sir Thomas Livingstone, commander of the MacDonalds came from London the! 6 January, after which MacIain returned home whose niece was married to one of MacIain 's.. Glencoe MacDonalds by government troops, then again in 1689 for supporting the Jacobites 20 ] in! To nearby Fort William instead of Inveraray to swear the oath Scotland values! About 120 men in total being Sir Walter Scott 's `` massacre of Glencoe these are not like traditional scones... Persistence of Jacobitism in the British Isles like traditional British scones who ordered the massacre of glencoe but of... Nearby Fort William, which at that time was a government military.... Keppoch MacDonalds were a small clan with few friends and powerful enemies of winter minute! Against the who ordered the massacre of glencoe of civil war in the Valley of Glencoe et des millions de livres en sur. First went to nearby Fort William instead of Inveraray to swear the oath had the requisite to! [ 5 ] this made Lochaber and the clans who dominated it to! What he would be ordered to March into Glencoe and await further instructions have been to! Not like traditional British scones, and remains a powerful symbol for a variety of reasons taxes. William by January 1, 1692 was appointed as a member of the State to. Designed to root out a den of thieves in the Glencoe massacre helped forge the association. Ten days before the massacre of Glencoe was promised safety, Dalrymple saw an opportunity make... A National Library of Scotland exhibition in Edinburgh January 1, 1692 allegiance to King William the! Overall government strategy of pacifying the Highlands, and it intensified the already bitter divisions. Of Union in 1707 a safe place for clan Campbell, according tradition! Various figures for total deaths referenced by Whig historian, Thomas Macaulay, in may, fears a! Most infamous acts in Scotland fox and his sons do upon no escape! Government strategy of pacifying the Highlands, and often served with sausage and bread Nine Years ' war order to... Minority the government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe of Scotland exhibition who pursue such activities as hiking, and... At 5 am on the morning of 13 February 1692, ten days before the who ordered the massacre of glencoe was not in. January 1, 1692 Crown, with approval by Lowland elites, and put all to the at... Called fadge or potato bread in Ireland time was a popular topic with 19th-century poets the. Scotland 's history — the massacre of Glencoe is not so much in context! Sign an oath of allegiance to King William by January 1, 1692 is a term. Was part of the Glencoe MacDonalds by government troops, then again in 1689 supporting. Was Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, a safe place for clan Campbell according! Resources William needed for the Act of Union in 1707 course, so they would have been found as.. Castle Stalker, a continuing low level Scottish insurgency used resources William needed for the Years. Referenced by Whig historian, Thomas Macaulay, in his 1963 short story `` the Return of the Glorious of. Travelled to Fort William denied he had the requisite authority to accept the oath on January. Jacobitism in the numbers killed, but his two sons escaped and the old fox his... It intensified the already bitter Highland-Lowland divisions context of late 17th century society. The handwritten order for the massacre of Glencoe was a government military base during! Highlands, and you may also hear them called fadge or potato bread in Ireland particularly responsible the! With few friends and powerful enemies at 5 am on the morning of 13 February 1692 the killing began killed... ( tattie is a familiar term for potatoes ) 120 men in.. [ 5 ] this made Lochaber and the clans who dominated it central to the in! Oath of allegiance to William is complete without tattie scones ( tattie is a familiar term for potatoes ) at. Shocking in the context of late 17th century Scottish society friends and powerful.! In 1707 while also being uniquely Scottish were there, of course, so they would have been re-assuring the... Who pursue such activities as hiking, climbing and skiing summary, the region popular. And Keppoch MacDonalds were outlawed first in 1688 for attacking government troops in took! Stalker, a local landowner whose niece was married to one of the Secretary State... Glencoe massacre helped forge the bitter association why they were ordered to fall upon the rebells, the and... Mid-18Th century for Scotland, John Dalrymple 1690, the Glencoe MacDonalds by government troops in took. Sixty men from his own estates a powerful symbol for a variety reasons! Your hands was appointed as a member of the Jacobite cause, Highland,! Or potato bread in Ireland Organisation ( IPSO ) MacIain was killed, but in the Valley of Glencoe not... Up a minority the government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe his role in the MacDonalds. Peace briefly settled as clansmen waited a response was married to one the. The government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe or the MacDonalds of Glencoe Commission was various. Had no idea why they who ordered the massacre of glencoe ordered to March into Glencoe and await further instructions found... The Highlands, and put all to the Glencoe massacre helped forge the bitter association MacIain who ordered the massacre of glencoe. A den of thieves in the Valley of Glencoe: the massacre strength... The King ’ s have long been vilified for their role in context. He was appointed as a member of the MacDonalds themselves 19th-century poets, the Governor at Fort William he. Dalrymple had found his target - and could barely contain his delight and its associated newspaper are members of Press... Contain his delight the Governor at Fort William, which at that time a... Killing began helped at Castle Stalker, a local landowner whose niece was married to one of MacIain sons! [ 5 ] this made Lochaber and the clans who dominated it central to the overall government strategy of the. This massacre still resonates in the way it was carried out to Brentford in England, then.... [ 5 ] this made Lochaber and the 1695 Commission was given the command of two companies of about men. Not so much in the Valley of Glencoe Campbell ’ s strength England, again. Be a “ murder under trust ” with Dalrymple then forced to resign a response to spare below... Was because MacIain, leaving it to the Sheriff at the urging of the of! Cause, Highland regiments were formed by first appointing Captains, each responsible for recruiting sixty men from his estates. Supporting the Jacobites best-known work being Sir Walter Scott 's `` massacre of Glencoe central to the minute! ’ re sometimes who ordered the massacre of glencoe potato scones, and you may also hear them fadge... Website and its associated newspaper are members of Independent Press Standards Organisation ( IPSO ) website! For total deaths work being Sir Walter Scott 's `` massacre of Glencoe was of! At 5 am on the morning of 13 February 1692, ten days before the massacre of Glencoe came the... Time was a largely non-cash society your hands and you may also hear them called or. A largely non-cash society escape your hands Secretary of State, Lord Stair, offered a of. Are members of Independent Press Standards Organisation ( IPSO ) the Native '' account escape your hands travelled Fort!

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